For instance, in training a dog not to jump on you, two methods are commonly used. Since a dog's desire to be with his human is so strong, simply turning your back to a dog who is jumping reinforces that jumping will not give him what he desires - your attention. As soon as the dog stops jumping, turning around, rewarding with a treat and keywords such as "yes" or "good" teaches the dog that keeping four paws on the floor brings him your attention.
The trainer who uses the dominance-based method will lift a knee to the dog's chest when he jumps, creating a negative and uncomfortable experience for the dog. The dog learns that jumping means pain. Dominance-based training is said to have its roots in German military dog training.
Do both methods work? They can. But some people who practice positive, rewards-based training feel that a dog becomes fearful of the owner when the punishment involves dominance. Cesar Milan is well known for using dominance-based dog training to show the dog that if he ignores commands, he will be subject to harsh reprimands and physical force. This method of training is highly controversial - as is the theory that dogs maintain a pack mentality in the household in which the owner can emerge as the alpha.