"[This] shows the heartbreaking reality behind keeping an orangutan as a pet," IAR wrote. "We are lost for words."
According to IAR, Joss was purchased by a man in Borneo for around $36. He told IAR he didn't know keeping orangutans was illegal and felt sorry for her, and kept her in the house with his wife and children.
"It seems that Joss was treated like a toy or a teddy bear by the children," IAR said. "She was carried around, hugged and squeezed, with no understanding of how frightening and distressing this must have been for her."
When he realized it was illegal, he turned Joss over to authorities. But it was too late.
"Joss's life up until now must have been very traumatic and stressful for her to behave in this abnormal way," Eng said. She adding that her team has never seen such a young orangutan exhibiting such severe stereotypic behavior - abnormal patterns that animals develop to cope with the stress of captivity.
"It is extremely distressing to watch because it must reflect the mental and emotional trauma little Joss is suffering," she added.