Notes [i] Rachelle Detweiler, "Missions of Mercy," The Animals' Agenda, Vol. 22, No. 1 (January-February 2002), 11.
[ii] Ingrid Newkirk, Free the Animals (Chicago: The Noble Press, 1992), 336.
[iii] John Berger, "Why Look at Animals?" in David M. Guss, ed., The Language of the Birds: Tales, Texts, and Poems of Interspecies Communication (San Francisco: North Point Press, 1985), 275-287.
[iv] Berger, 286-287.
[v] Berger, 285.
[vi] I examine the cultural practice of belittling nonhuman animals, especially farmed animals, in my book More Than a Meal: The Turkey in History, Myth, Ritual, and Reality (New York: Lantern Books, 2001).
[vii] For a Marxist look at the "alienation" of factory farmed chickens (and by extension all factory farmed animals), see especially pp. 21-24 of my book Prisoned Chickens, Poisoned Eggs: An Inside Look at the Modern Poultry Industry (Summertown, TN: The Book Publishing Company, 1996). Revised and updated 2009.
[viii] "The simplest method of disposal is to pack the birds, alive, into containers, and bulldoze them into the ground. Euphemistically called 'composting,' it still amounts to being buried alive," according to Canadian Farm Animal Care Trust President Tom Hughes, quoted in Merritt Clifton, "Starving the hens is 'standard,'" Animal People: News For People Who Care About Animals, Vol. 9, No. 4 (May 2000), 1, 8. See also Chris Miller, "Cooped up: Animal rights activists say the transportation of chickens to slaughterhouses remains cruel and inhumane despite an increase in (Canadian) government regulations," The Vancouver Courier, Vol. 11, No. 29 (July 27, 2001), 1, 3, 17.