If an elephant never forgets, Anna Louise may remember what freedom feels like.
As a baby, she was sold into a life of chains, crates, bars and bullhooks in the United States - never to see her family or the plains of Zimbabwe again. According to Easley's records, she spent her youth in various American zoos before being purchased for use in circuses in 1988.
Every elephant under the big top has been beaten into complacency through "severe training sessions," said Rossell. Though Kelly Miller admits its handlers carry bullhooks, Royal claimed they're only implemented "in extreme situations."
While dancing extravaganza Anna Louise shares the stage with eight tigers, two zebras, two camels, a llama, several dogs and ponies, she is forced to travel in confined isolation - without the company of a single elephant companion.