Black-and-white ruffed lemur (Varecia variegata)
© Conservation International/photo by Sterling Zumbrunn
The most iconic mammals of Madagascar are the lemurs, represented by five families of primates unique to this island. With 72 kinds of lemurs (species and subspecies), representing 15 genera, Madagascar and the Indian Ocean Islands biodiversity hotspot is the world leader in primate endemism and the highest priority for the conservation of primates. The Critically Endangered black-and-white ruffed lemur is just one of the many endemic species in this hotspot that is threatened by habitat loss due to logging, agriculture, mining and other development.
Ricord's iguana (Cyclura ricordii)
Image by Yolanda M. Leon
Two percent of all species occur in the Caribbean Islands biodiversity hotspot, but unfortunately more than 700 species are endangered. In addition to 13,000 plant species, the hotspot is particularly rich in reptiles, with more than 500 reptile species, almost 470 (or 94 percent) of which are endemic. This includes nine species of rock iguana from the genus Cyclura, all threatened, including the Critically Endangered Ricord's iguana.