"I have cut free a chained golden retriever who had managed to create his own igloo in an attempt to retain his body heat," he tells The Dodo. "I have removed deceased pit bull puppies stuck in a frozen mud puddle."
Despite the staggering risk for so many breeds, Kellogg says there is indeed a dog for all seasons.
Consider the working dogs of Canada's North. Sled dogs. Huskies.
They're animals, Kellogg says, who have consistently been exposed to extreme cold. As a result, they've been given the time to physically adapt.
While Haisley agrees that over time, dogs can learn to physically manage the cold, it's their mental environment that becomes the most desolate place of all.
"What all dogs have in common is their predisposed desire for human companionship," he explains. "Dogs have social, physical and mental needs, and they thrive when they are a part of a family with a structured day filled with exercise and enrichment. They can quickly decline when isolated outdoors in a pen or on a chain, regardless of the weather conditions."