Every day in the U.S., some 100,000 cattle shuffle toward slaughter — with such volume, it's easy to forget that each animal experiences emotions as he's becoming dinner.
A series of striking photos shot by the group Toronto Pig Save reminds us that cows have feelings, too.
The animals stare out from holes in the truck looking scared and anxious. In some instances, the extreme cold they're exposed to forms icicles on their fur.
Cattle have been shown to possess surprising emotional capabilities and intelligence. Studies have shown that cows can form social bonds with one another, develop hierarchies and even have distinct, individual personalities.
The love mother cows have for their calves is just one example of cows' emotional bonds. They are often separated so that the mother can continue giving her milk to the dairy industry, a process that can cause anxiety for both animals. Mother cows have been known to break out of their enclosures and wander for miles to find their calves.
One study even found that cows can learn to solve simple problems, and they experience a "eureka" moment: the feeling of pleasure in learning new things.
(All photos via Toronto Pig Save)