Sackman suggests some breeds, like the Cavalier King Charles spaniel, may not have as many social signals at his disposal - the breed's small face is prized for being flat and puppy-like, but unable to convey as many social signals as the more wolf-like husky or German shepherd, whose elongated faces have plenty of room for emotion.
"You have the Cavalier who has no way of reading or communicating to the husky and the husky is like, what is wrong with you?" Sackman says.
And that's where misunderstandings, and sometimes conflict, arise.
But on the other hand, when a couple of German shepherds meet in the park, they have a lot more social signals at their disposal - and as such, it might seem like they recognize each other based on breed.