It didn't seem to matter that there are plenty of well-known herbal and synthetic alternatives to bear bile.
So, a sentient being was confined for life, valued only for what rumbled deep inside his belly.
Tuffy was rescued along with six other bears last September by Animals Asia from a farm in Vietnam. Since then, he had been recovering from having his damaged gallbladder, as well as three rotten teeth, removed.
This week, the bear was finally healthy enough to venture outside.
Bear, meet water.