Tigers have declined precipitously over the past century and then some, popularly considered to have declined from 100,000 in 1900 to about 3,000 today. They're poached to the brink of extinction for their bones, skins, teeth, claws, and internal organs. And, humans stood by and watched ... until it was, perhaps, too late.
We talk all the time about the fact that there are thought to be more tigers in captivity in America (roughly 5,000) than there are in the wild. There are more tigers in Chinese tiger farms than exist in the wild, too: all being bred, confined, and forced to languish, as their parts are drip-fed into the consumer market, keeping demand alive until a full reopening of tiger trade can happen.
It's kind of hard to protect tigers in the wild, in places such as India, when demand is robust. But, it also seems a bit hypocritical to tell China to stop keeping tigers cruelly in captivity when America has a rather embarrassing record in this regard.
Visitors to the state fair in Missouri, for instance, have emerged with shocking reports about the performing tigers: a popular attraction. Pictures of these cats show jutting hip bones, prominent spines, and vanishing waists. It doesn't take a veterinarian to see that these cats are deprived. One visitor described the cats as "skeletons" and observers saw the cats move lethargically through their routines. Even a former employee of Robert Mullen, the cats' trainer, claimed that Mullen was notorious for mistreatment.
While this is a clear and visible case of abuse, the sad truth is that big cats in shows are often trained with cruel, punishing tactics, including food deprivation. Even in animal shows in which you can't see hip bones spiking under the skin, the cats are still suffering in captivity.
In Ohio, we find a baby tiger cowering in the midst of thousands of screaming fans. The Massillon Washington High School football team, whose mascot is Obie the tiger, is infamous for using live animals as mascots. While it is easy to find athletic inspiration behind what a tiger embodies - speed, strength, power, and courage - this little cub will never get to live a life that exemplifies these words. Even when he is no longer exposed to the terrifying, roaring crowds on the football field, he faces a life of isolation and deprivation in captivity. This baby was taken from his mother and from his natural environment to become a living symbol. Cubs used for entertainment come from a vicious cycle of breeding and exploitation. When cubs outgrow their "use," they are discarded and often land in other unqualified hands, fueling the exotic pet trade or ending up the responsibility of over-burdened and under-funded wildlife sanctuaries.
Ohio wasn't the only place criticized recently for using tiger cubs. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) finally got fed up with Dade City Wild Things, a problematic petting zoo in Florida that offers the chance to swim with tiger cubs. The USDA had identified a number of issues back in 2012, but no action was taken by the zoo. The USDA has now filed an official complaint alleging that the zoo has not made a "good faith" effort to remedy the previous Animal Welfare Act violations, and pointed out several new problems, as well. The accusations paint a picture of systemic abuse and exploitation, including actions like dangling baby tigers by their tails and legs. The grim reality is that these animals come from the same vicious cycle of breeding as Obie in Ohio, and are used as profitable and disposable props. I hope the USDA presses for the harshest criminal punishments as it continues to pursue this case.
As I look around the country and see these incidents, I always come back to the same question: what message does such callous use of these animals send? Each individual animal - from Obie on a field in Ohio, to starving tigers in Missouri, to cubs dangling into pools in Florida - deserves freedom. But, this pattern of exploitation also points to a broad way of viewing animals as disposable money-makers.
No individual case of suffering is truly an isolated incident. Each time a tiger is used for entertainment, it perpetuates the idea that keeping wild animals in captivity is fun, novel, and acceptable. It shows disregard for the well-being of all tigers and prioritizes profit and entertainment over compassion. Shame on these venues for peddling the distorted and malicious concept that animals exist for our amusement.
We need to protect tigers in the wild. We need to push China to close its tiger "farms." But, perhaps we can start closer to home by dealing with the hypocrisy and insanity of captive tigers in America.
Keep Wildlife in the Wild,